Wagnerism: Art and Politics in the Shadow of Music

Wagnerism: Art and Politics in the Shadow of Music. By Alex Ross. Farrar, Straus and Giroux; 784 pages; $40. Fourth Estate; £30.

HITLER CASTS as long a shadow over Richard Wagner as Wagner casts over art. So argues Alex Ross, the music critic of the New Yorker, in his gigantic new book, “Wagnerism”. Fifty years after the German composer’s death in 1883, his operas became “the chief cultural ornament of the most destructive political regime in history”. Yet, says Mr Ross, the Nazis made use of Wagner “only when he was shorn of his ambiguities, and even then his presence in mainstream Nazi culture was less pronounced than many accounts let on”.

The author is no apologist. He probes Wagner’s anti-Semitism, which included a vile essay of 1850 called “Jewishness in Music” as well as caricatures such as the dwarves in the “Ring” cycle. In Wagner’s lifetime, “Parsifal” was perceived by the writer Paul Lindau as “Christianity in Music”—the Christianity, that is, “of the Spanish Inquisitor, which burns heretics while the pure voices of children praise God’s mercy”. By the end of the 19th century, Mr Ross recounts, scholars were arguing that as well as containing anti-Semitic stereotypes, the operas embody what one critic has called an “aesthetics of anti-Semitism”.

Through the Meister’s family and various unsavoury boosters, Mr Ross traces the links between the Third Reich and Bayreuth, Wagner’s eventual home and the spiritual abode of his music. But the book is more than either a prosecutor’s brief or a case for the defence. Instead Mr Ross offers a “passionate ambivalence” as he charts Wagner’s vexed legacy, which loomed over Modernism and fin de siècle Europe.

The use of heroic characters, massive scale, Nordic myth and leitmotifs appealed to contemporaries like Nietzsche and Baudelaire, novelists such as J.R.R. Tolkien, and generations of film-makers. Not everyone applauded: Tolstoy described “Siegfried” as a “stupid puppet show not even good enough for children”. But, love him or hate him, Wagner has been unavoidable. Mr Ross ranges widely over his impact—sometimes too widely. A plunge into “Finnegans Wake” by way of opera is soporific.

Hitler admired Wagner as a musician first and a thinker second. In the early 1920s he kept a stack of the composer’s records in his flat in Munich. Yet, says Mr Ross, his enthusiasm was more intoxicated than insightful. The Führer seemed to overlook Wagner’s preoccupation with love. The “Ring” critiques power; for all its Aryan overtones, “Parsifal” elevates compassion. Wagner’s heroes struggle with remorse—hardly a Nazi virtue. Missing all this, Hitler blathered about hearing “the rhythms of the primeval world”.

Beyond his unyielding anti-Semitism, Wagner himself was politically incoherent. He flirted with anarchism, socialism, communism, pacifism and Utopianism, drifting left as he grew older (Siegfried’s funeral music was played at a concert commemorating Lenin’s death). Nazi leaders had to be seen at the theatre in Bayreuth, but opera’s narrow appeal, as well as Wagner’s mixed-up views, limited his music’s value in Nazi propaganda.

Still, Wagner provided the soundtrack and iconography of the Nazi war machine—and eventually of warfare itself. In a fascinating passage on “Apocalypse Now”, Francis Ford Coppola’s film of 1979, Mr Ross describes the famous role of “Ride of the Valkyries” in a sequence depicting a helicopter attack on a Vietnamese village. “A grand indictment of American hubris is intended”, he writes, “yet the visceral impact of the film-making saps its capacity for critique.” A later film, “Jarhead”, shows young troops revelling in the scene. Real-life American vehicles blared the music during missions in Grenada and Iraq.

How far art and artist can be separated is an age-old question. In Wagner’s case, the art can itself be racist and bombastic. His avowed prejudice taints it further—for some, unforgivably. For others, the power of his operas overrides such objections. By presenting an honest assessment of the problem, “Wagnerism” supplies, if not answers, then at least the right questions. The Economist, Aug 19, 2020


Equity Actors

By Julie James

PRODUCERS AND DIRECTORS want the best actors for their productions and those actors are more often likely to be “Equity” (a member of the Actors Equity Association or AEA), the union for stage actors and stage managers in the U.S.  Equity actors are usually more extensively trained and more experienced at a higher level of theatre, are dedicated to a full-time career as an actor, and therefore more proficient.

Having studied more extensively and having continued their training throughout their careers, having “paid their dues” doing small roles, working in non-union community and/or “street” theatre, and moving up to productions on a professional level, Equity actors’ experience is usually broader than non-union actors. This is not to say that non-union actors are less talented than Equity actors, and many non-union actors have an abundance of training and experience; all union actors were non-union at one time too, and many theatres who use Equity actors also need and use strong non-union actors. It’s just that since the majority of medium and large regional theatres, Broadway, and most national tours operate under agreements with AEA, being an AEA member automatically means you have done “professional” level work.

Additionally, when it comes to auditions AEA members get priority. Especially in New York, for tours, and for the larger Bay Area theatres, AEA members can get an individual audition appointment, whereas non-union actors are often stuck with the “cattle-call” type auditions, have far fewer audition appointments available to them and consequently may end up not getting seen at all.

For the theatre companies as producers, by using Equity actors, they are operating under a contract with AEA which lets their patrons and actors know that they are 1) following standardized workplace policies for safety, schedules, and other labor practices, and 2) recognizing the value of the actors’ contribution to the end product and therefore paying the actors a certain level of weekly salary, including overtime as appropriate, and paying into the actors’ pension and health plans with the union. There are numerous Equity contracts and tiers within those contracts that are based on what region a theatre is located in, the size of their budget, the size of their house, the number of hours per week they rehearse and the number of performances per week. There are also very restricted and one-off type contracts that allow non-union theatres and self-producing Equity actors to use Equity actors in a more flexible way on a temporary basis.

At this point, you might ask how one becomes a member of Equity. There are three ways: via offer of an AEA contract in a particular production; via accumulation of Equity Membership Candidacy (EMC) points; or via a sister union.

  • Via AEA CONTRACT: Equity houses (i.e., theatres that operate under any one of numerous contracts with Actors Equity) usually have a minimum number of Equity contracts they must use in each production/season. Depending on how many other Equity actors they have hired, they may have only an Equity contract available for the actor they want to hire for a particular role, and if that actor is not already Equity, he/she can join the union via offer of that contract. Alternatively, once a theatre fills those Equity contract slots, it may only have non-union roles available and will seek only non-union actors for those, unless they are willing to increase their budget to hire an additional Equity actor. A theatre can exceed the minimum number of Equity contracts for a show but cannot drop below the minimum.
  • Via EMC POINTS: An actor can become a member of Equity by “earning” a certain number of EMC points. They do this by being hired by an EMC-participating theatre (i.e., an Equity theatre with certain minimums of budget and seats and related thresholds), and registering with Equity as a Candidate, including paying an initial fee. For every week an actor works at that theatre, they earn a point. Performers are required to earn a minimum of 25 weeks, and may go as far as 50 weeks before joining the union. I’m not an expert on EMC conditions, so anyone reading this should check with AEA for actual details. (Use the link at the bottom of the page.)*
  • Via SISTER UNION: Actors can also become members of Equity by virtue of their prior membership in a performing arts sister union (SAG-AFTRA, AGMA and others). the member’s status in the sister union and certain other conditions come into play, but again I’m no expert in this means of getting membership, so anyone reading this should check with AEA for details. (The link at the bottom of the page.)*

At Jewel Theatre Company we are considered an Equity house but we also hire many non-union actors and pay them a comparable weekly salary as well as provide housing if they don’t live in the area. We are also an EMC-participating theatre, therefore, non-union actors get EMC points for each week they work with us. Many of these actors have a lot of training and/or solid experience but just haven’t happened to get the opportunity to get into Equity yet, and I like providing them additional experience at Jewel and supporting them in achieving their goal to get into the union.

Further, producers hire other accomplished artists—set, costume, lighting and sound designers, directors and technical personnel who also have their own unions, all of whom are also striving to be the best in their field; producers compensate them at established levels with benefits, etc., recognizing the value of these artists along with the Equity and non-union actors, in creating the highest quality productions.

*Click HERE

JULIE JAMES is the founder and Artistic Director of Jewel Theatre Company where she has directed Next to Normal and Woman in Mind among other plays, and acted in The Other Place, Me and My Girl, Always… Patsy Cline, Sylvia, A Streetcar Named Desire, Guys and Dolls, Arcadia, Mary Stuart, and House of Blue Leaves among others. Prior to founding JTC, Julie performed at numerous theatres in the Bay Area and beyond, including Marin Theatre Company, Sierra Repertory Theatre, Idaho Shakespeare Festival, Shakespeare Santa Cruz, American Musical Theatre of San Jose, California Conservatory Theatre, Center Repertory Theatre, The Willows Theatre, and VITA Shakespeare Festival. Julie holds a B.A. in Theatre Arts from Santa Clara University and spent 20 years as a grant writer and analyst for non-profit and government agencies. She graduated from the Drama Studio of London at Berkeley and has completed coursework towards an M.A. in Theatre Arts at SF State University.